Common European Numeracy Framework


Numerate behaviour is a multifaceted concept. The CENF project distinguishes between four main categories: context, content, higher-order skills, and dispositions.



Numerate behavior is always embedded in a context. Some numeracy take place in  everyday life such as in daily activities of the individual such as cooking. Numeracy can also be in the context of work and professional settings,  ranging from such as simple lists of numbers to complex algoritm-driven applications.  The last category is media and public life such as data visualizations. Each activity in adult education will probably be related to at least one of the context situations. This may depend on how provisions for adults have been organized. Courses related to work, for example, will have a clear focus on the work situation, but may also focus on more general topics for the individual participants. Courses organized for financial literacy will have a clear focus on budgeting. Courses meant for second language learners may also focus on further learning.


Higher order skills matter to improve numerate behavior. The skills mentioned can be found in some frameworks regarding mathematics or numeracy. There is an overlap with so-called 21st century skills. Every individual – whatever his/her cognitive abilities and experiences – uses higher order skills. Everybody makes decisions, reasons, and processes information. Obviously these skills can also be improved by many individuals. These skills include managing and analyzing situations, but also critical thinking and problem solving.


Content knowledge and skills matter to improve numerate behaviour. The first four subcategories – quantity and number; dimension and shape, pattern, relationship and change; data and chance; –  can be found in most frameworks regarding mathematics or numeracy outside the formal school system. They can be considered as the contemporary replacements of the Algebra-and-Geometry-division which dominated the 19th and 20th century.  The use of (digital) tools and applications is another set of subcategories which nowadays matters to cope with situations in our digitalised society.


Adult numeracy dispositions develop over the course of life, starting from childhood and compulsory school. They depend on people’s  own capabilities, beliefs and feelings concerning mathematics, but are also influenced by external positive and negative experiences: how and what mathematics was learned in schools & experiences in lived-in situations. Student that performs better on school mathematics, lead to good math and numeracy dispositions: feeling confident with numbers, pleasure with numbers, and recognizing the usefulness of mathematics. Conversely, students with negative experiences may develop negative feelings for numbers, less self-confidence or even math-anxiety. The disappointment when receiving low marks for mathematics may have enormous influence on numeracy capacities of the future adult.